McCartney, Len, Sylvanus: 1946 – 1948

Len Sylvanus McCartney

Superintendent and Principal, Yokohama American Dependent Schools

1946-1948

by: Col. William F. Wollenberg, U.S. Army (Retired)

LOREN SYLVANUS MCCARTNEY

Lieutenant Colonel Loren Sylvanus McCartney, U.S. Army, Retired, was the first Superintendent of the Yokohama American Dependent Schools and the first Principal of Yokohama American High School.

He was born in Gilmer County, West Virginia, 17 October 1911. Reared on a large farm in Gilmer and Calhoun Counties, he attended one of the one room” schoolhouses that were located throughout the county. In Gilmer County there were about 85 such “one room” schoolhouses into the 1930’s.

After graduating from Calhoun County High School, Colonel McCartney enrolled in Glenville State College. His goal was to attain the college credits necessary to qualify for a temporary teaching certificate in the elementary grades. In the fall of 1932, he was awarded such a certificate and was employed as a teacher in a one room, rural elementary school. Enrollment was about 35 boys and girls, ranging in age from six to fifteen years and spread from first through the eighth grades.

Colonel McCartney’s continuing education included undergraduate studies at West Virginia University and Glenville State College from which he received a BA Degree in Education. He holds a Masters Degree in General Education from the University of Pittsburg and did additional graduate work at the University of Edinburgh, Scotland.

Colonel McCartney entered military service and completed basic infantry training at Camp Wheeler, Georgia, (near Macon) in April 1942. In May 1942 he arrived in Australia with other replacement troops and was subsequently selected to attend Officers’ Candidate School. He was commissioned as a Second Lieutenant near Brisbane, Australia, on 1 April 1943. He served in the New Guinea Campaign and in the Netherlands East Indies before returning to the United States in July of 1945.

In 1946 he was assigned to the Army of Occupation in Japan where, as a Captain, he served as both Superintendent of Dependent Schools in Yokohama, Japan, and as Principal of the Yokohama American High School. The latter position he held until 1949. During that period, students from Camp McGill (Hayama) and Yokosuka Naval Base, as well as other remote areas, were transported to Yokohama for school on a daily basis on the train. Other students from outlying areas were transported to school by makeshift buses. High school students initially attended classes at Saint Joseph’s College in Yokohama. The Yokohama American High School opened on 15 September 1947 with 106 students.

Colonel McCartney’s military career included other assignments in the field of education: Assistant Professor of Military Science, University of Pittsburgh, Plans and Training Advisor to the Republic of Korea Army Quartermaster General, and Faculty of the U.S. Army Quartermaster School, Fort Lee, Virginia. He retired from military service 30 September 1962.

His endeavors in the field of education continued following his military career. He served 12 years on the faculty of Glenville State College as an Assistant Professor of History before retiring in 1974. Additionally, he has served the town of Glenville and counties of Gilmer and Calhoun as President of the Gilmer County Farm Bureau, in the Rotary Club and as a member and Elder of the Glenville Presbyterian Church.

Colonel McCartney presently resides near Glenville, West Virginia, on a small farm where he raises hornless Hereford cattle, with his wife of 47 years, the former Georgia Pearl Stalnaker of Glenville whom he married on 14 August 1945. Mrs. McCartney accompanied Colonel McCartney to Japan, joining him in March 1947 and was employed as a schoolteacher at Nasugbu Beach Elementary School. The first of the McCartney’s four children, Patrick Loren, was born in the 155th Station Hospital, Yokohama in 1948. Sons Micheal and Kevin were born in Pittsburgh, PA, during his assignment at the University of Pittsburgh and a daughter Kathleen was born at Fort Lee, VA, in 1959 during his tour on the faculty of the U.S. Army Quartermaster School.

Colonel McCartney and “Pearl” have attended the Yokohama American High School (Yo-Hi) national reunions at Indianapolis, IN (1988); Phoenix, AZ (1990); Nashville, TN (1992); as well as several regional gatherings. They plan to attend again in 1994 and beyond.

Colonel McCartney readily admits that the part that he had in planning and establishing the Yokohama American High School in August 1947 and serving as principal for two years were his greatest and most gratifying achievements.

THE YOKOHAMA AMERICAN SCHOOL

Headquaters Special Troops

Eighth Army

APO 343

27 August 1947

SUBJECT: Dependent Schools

TO: G-1 Section

Headquarters Eighth Army APO 343

1. History of 1946-47 school term.

a. Yokohama School.

The Yokohama American School was established in July, 1946, for the education of children of American military and War Department civilian personnel of the occupational forces. The program, curriculum materials, and textbooks provided by the Home Instruction Department of the Calvert School of Baltimore, Maryland, were used under the direction of qualified teachers recruited from among the dependents and military personnel. These courses provided for instruction in all grades from kindergarten through grade nine. Students desiring instruction in grades 10,11 and 12 attended Saint Joseph’s College in Yokohama or the American School in Tokyo.

b. School Plant.

The Yokohama American School is located at 9-500 “The Bluff” in a renovated Japanese Commercial College. This building has a maximum student capacity of 250.

c. Operating Capital.

War Department funds were not provided for the operation of dependent schools, therefore, it was necessary to operate the school on a tuition basis.

Zone Rates per Month

Kindergarten $ 6.00

Elementary 13.75 (single child)

Elementary 7.50 (family rate)

High School l 15.00 (single child)

High School l 12.00 (family rate)

d. Enrollment.

(1) Initial enrollment 18.

(2) Final enrollment 218.

e. Summer School.

A summer school was conducted for remedial instruction. The total enrollment was 226.

f. Transportation.

Transportation was provided by Army trucks converted into school buses. Six of these trucks were provided and operated by the Headquarters Commandant Section. Students from Camp McGill (Hayama) and the Yokosuka Naval Base rode the train to Yokohama Central Station and were met there by a school bus.

g. Lunches.

A dining room was operated by the school to provide lunches and snacks for those children who were unable to return home during the lunch period. Food for the preparation of these lunches and snacks was purchased from the Quartermaster Sales Commissary and paid for by the sale of meal tickets.

h. Medical Program.

Each child was given a thorough physical examination twice during the term and the immunization program was conducted at the school.

2.Other Schools within the Eighth Army Enclave.

a. The Calvert courses were used by all organized schools within the Eighth Army Enclave. The Yokohama American School supplied all these schools with texts and supplies and rendered all assistance possible in their establishment and operation.

b. Individual students or study groups.

By using the Calvert Courses it was possible to provide home instruction for small study groups or individual children located in hotels, military government units, and other army units throughout Japan. Such home instruction was conducted under the supervision of the Calvert School by use of the “Criticism Service ”

c. High School.

High School instruction for grade nine was provided by the Calvert Post Graduate, 9th grade course, using “Criticism Service” from the Calvert School Instruction in grades 10,11 and 12 was conducted under the extension plan from the University of Nebraska.

d. Operation Capital.

Funds for operation were supplied in all cases by charging tuition.

3. Plans for the 1947-48 school term.

a. High School.

A four-year senior high school is planned and will open 15 September 1947. The requirements of the North Central Association of High Schools and Colleges were used as a guide in planning the school curriculum.

b. Elementary School.

The Calvert Courses of Study will again be used in the elementary school. Provisions were made for instruction in all grades from kindergarten through grade eight.

c. Individual students or study groups.

Home instruction will be provided by using the Calvert Courses.

4. General.

a. Buildings.

(1) High school classes will be conducted in a three story building of concrete structure, located at 9-500 “The Bluff”, Yokohama. Building capacity – 250 students.

(2) Elementary school and kindergarten will be held in a three story building of concrete structure, located between housing area Nos. 1 and 2 on the Beach. Building capacity – 700 students.

(3) These two schools will be available to the children of occupational personnel in metropolitan Yokohama, lst Cavalry Units at Camp McGill, the Yokosuka Naval Base (Navy and Marine), RTC at Atsugi, 75th Light Truck at Chigisake, 4th Replacement Depot, 8th Army Auto Maintenance School, 128th Station Hospital and the 585th Engineer Dump Truck Company, all located in the Zama area

b. Transportation.

A procurement demand for Japanese buses has been initiated and it will again be necessary for children in the outlying areas to use the local trains in traveling to school

c. Texts and supplies.

The Information and Education Section has procured all necessary texts and supplies through the Army Exchange Service. These will either be sold through the Post Exchange or distributed by the Information and Education Section to the individual schools.

d. Equipment

All school furniture has been or is being supplied by the Japanese on procurement demands.

e. Operating Capital.

The extent of appropriated funds for the payment of teachers is not known at this time, however, if such funds are not sufficient the operating capital must then be supplemented by a tuition fee.

f. Anticipated enrollment for 194748 term. Yokohama American Schools

Initial Final

High School 120 200

Elementary 350 500

Kindergarten 140 200

g. Personnel.

Teachers are being recruited from among the dependents and from the United States. Due to the limited funds available it will be necessary to supplement the staff, where it is possible, with qualified military personnel. The requirements for high school teachers are in accordance with the standards of the North Central Association of High Schools and Colleges.

h. Medical Program.

It has been recommended that a school nurse be employed by the larger schools for the purpose of conducting the immunization program, rendering first aid, giving physical examinations and conducting classes in health.

Loran McCartney Captain, Q.M.C. Principal

30 July 1948

Headquaters Yokohama Command

YOKOHAMA AMERICAN SCHOOLS

APO 503

Subject: Yokohama American Dependent Schools.

TO: Troop Information and Education Section, APO 343

1. History of the 1947-48 school term.

a. High School.

The first American Senior High School in Yokohama opened 15 September 1947 in a renovated Japanese Commercial College located at 9-500 “The Bluff”. In compliance with Hg. Eighth Army Circular No. 132, dated 6 August 1947, Subject “Standard Operating Procedure For American Dependent Schools”, the curriculum plan of the North Central Association for Secondary Schools and Colleges was followed.

b. School Plant.

The Yokohama American High School is housed in a three story building of stucco and plaster construction located at 9-500, “The Bluff”. This structure provides space for 12 classrooms, auditorium, a study hall, art studio, faculty room, dispensary, music room, dining hall, kitchen, two toilet rooms for male students, two toilet rooms for female students, separate shower rooms for male and female students, separate toilet rooms for male and female maintenance personnel, a supply room, and adequate office space for administrative personnel An excellent central heating plant was installed under the supervision of the Engineer Section at the time the building was renovated. Shower rooms and toilets were also installed at that time.

c. Operating Capital and Tuition.

At the close of the 1946-’47 school term all capital on hand that had been accrued from tuition payments was refunded to the parents. This refund amounted to 40 per cent of the total paid per student. The exact amount of appropriated funds for school operations during 1947-’48 was not known at the time school opened, therefore a tuition charge was made to supplement any funds that would be allocated. The tuition rates were as follows:

Tuition Rates Per Month

(1) Kindergarten $6.00 per pupil

(2) Grades 1 through 12 $5.00 per pupil

Appropriate funds were not available for Kindergarten operation and this department has always been self-supporting.

In October a tuition scale based upon parent income was established. This scale grades 1 through 12 was:

(1) Field Grade Officers, P-5,

CAF 12 and above $6.00 per month, per child

(2) Company Grade Officers,

P-2 thru P-4, CAF 7 thru 11 $4.00 per month, per child

(3) Enlisted Personnel,

P-1, CAF 6 and under $3.00 per month, per child

(4) Kindergarten for all grades and ratings

$6.00 per month, per child

In February information was received that sufficient funds were available to cover the entire cost of school operation, grades 1 through 12, for the remainder of the term and tuition payments were discontinued 1 March 1948. In July 1947 a Thrift Shop was established and is being operated by the Parent Teacher Association. The Yokohama Schools receive 10 per cent of the total sales from this enterprise, which amounts to approximately three hundred dollars per month. This money is used for the purchase of general school supplies.

d. Enrollment High School and Kindergarten, Bluff.

Sept May

Kindergarten 61 58

High School 106 139

The peak enrollment for high school was in March with 143 students.

e. Personnel:

Principal and School Superintendent, 1 Captain

c. Athletic Director and Supply 1 1st.Lt.

Athletic Assistant 1 EM

Teachers, High School 8

Teachers, Kindergarten 3

Librarian 1

Nurse 1

Mess Supervisor 1

Administrative personnel 2

Qualified dependents living in the Yokohama Area were employed as teachers. Maintenance personnel were supplied by the Labor Section from Japanese sources.

As the schools continued to grow and expand a Major was assigned as Superintendent 1 April 1948.

f. Transportation.

The Eastern Motors Company of Tokyo provided twenty buses on procurement demand for the transportation of all school children in the Yokohama Area. Students from the 4th Replacement Depot, 128th Station Hospital, 8th Army AMS, and other units in the Zama Area were transported by a bus operated by the 4th Replacement Depot. Students from Camp McGill (Hayama), the Naval Base (Yokosuka), and Kamalnara rode the local train to Yokohama Central Station and were met there by school buses.

g. Lunches.

A dining room was operated by the school to provide lunches and snacks for those children who were unable to return home during the lunch period. Food for the preparation of these lunches and snacks was purchased from the Quartermaster Sales Commissary and paid for by the sale of meal tickets.

h. Medical Program.

The duties of the school nurse are as follows:

(1) Immunizations, all children

(2) Maintain health records

(3) Daily inspection of all classes

(4) Provide fast aid for all minor injuries

(5) Daily inspection of school toilets and kitchens

(6) Conduct physical examinations

3 Activities.

(1) Sports.

The high school football team played a five game schedule against service teams. Although this type of competition is unusual for high school the team always gave a splendid performance.

The boys basketball team won 16 games out of 20 played. The competition again being, for the most part, service teams.

The girls basketball team also enjoyed a successful season against teams representative the WAC, DAC and Tokyo High School.

Although track facilities are inadequate we were able to put a track team, of both boys and girls, on the field against Tokyo High School.

Classes in physical education were conducted daily providing two periods per week for all students. The physical education program was 100 per cent self-supporting by admission fees collected at all games.

(2) Clubs.

The school sponsored a dramatic club, library club, photo club, glee club and a journalism club. A school newspaper was published twice monthly and a high school annual was published at the end of the term.

(3) Other Activities.

Teen Age Club

Brownies

Cubs

Boy Scouts

Girl Scouts

Mariners

Band

Arts and Crafts

2. Grammar School

The elementary school, grades I through 8 and Kindergarten was opened 22 September 1947. The program, curriculum, materials and textbooks provided by the Calvert School of Home Instruction were used under the supervision of qualified teachers recruited from dependents residing in the Yokohama Area. All texts and school supplies were purchased through the Yokohama Post Exchange.

a. School Plant.

The elementary school is housed by a three-story building of concrete construction, fire and earthquake resistant, located between housing Areas No. 1 and 2. This building was formerly used by the Japanese as a school for the primary and intermediate grades, but with the evacuation of the Japanese from that area and construction of dependent housing units in the area surrounding the school, its use by the Japanese was no longer practical. In this building the following rooms were available: 26 classrooms, a library, music studio, dispensary, art studio, a gymnasium, auditorium, faculty room, dining room, kitchen, supply room, repair shop, three toilets for male students three toilets for female students, toilets for Japanese male and female workers, one shower room for boys, one shower room for girls, and adequate office space for school administration.

b. Operation Capital and Tuition.

The same plan as outlined under sub-paragraph (c) high school was used. All funds collected were turned over to the principal of the high school who was fund custodian and kept all accounts and paid all bills.

c. Enrollments.

May

Kindergarten 48 115

Grades 1 – 12 275 457

High school enrollment and Bluff Kindergarten enrollment were not included in the above figures.

d. Personnel:

Principal 1 Captain

Assistant Principal and Supply 1 1st. Lt.

Athletics and Transportation 1 1st. Lt.

Athletic Assistant 1 Enlisted

Librarian (for Bluff school also) 1

Nurse (for Bluff school also) 1

Music Teacher, vocal 1

Music Teacher, instrumental 1

(for Bluff school also)

Teachers, grades 1 thru 8 21

Teachers, Kindergarten 5

Art Teacher (for Bluff school also) 1

Maintenance personnel were provided by the Labor Section from Japanese sources.

e. Transportation.

The same system and buses as indicated under sub-paragraph (f) high school were used for the Grammar School.

f. Lunches.

The same plan as outlined in sub-paragraph (g) under high school was followed.

g. Medical Program.

The same plan as outlined in sub-paragraph (h) high school was followed.

h. Activities.

(1) Sports.

Six man football teams, basketball teams and softball teams were organized. A few games were played against other schools but the sports program was for the most part of an inter-mural nature.

Girls basketball and softball teams were organized and games were played with other institutions when possible. Supervised play periods and physical education classes were conducted daily for all grades. Each class had two periods of playground or gymnasium activity daily.

(2) Clubs.

Each class in the intermediate and upper grades, sponsored one or more clubs.

(3) Other Activities.

Teen Age Club

Brownies

Cubs Scouts

3. General

a. Total enrollment for 1947-’48

Sept May

Kindergarten 109 173

Grades 1 thru 8 275 457

Grades 9 thru 12 10 139

490 769

b. Summer Session.

A summer school was in session for remedial instruction and for the benefit of those students who were absent from school while in-transit. The total enrollment for all grades was 303 students.

4. Plans for the 1948-’49

a. High School continued to operate at the Bluff School. The efficient operating capacity of this building was 225 students. If all rooms were not required for high school use, then kindergarten classes were opened for children living in Yamashita Park and on the Bluff near the school. This arrangement reduced the transportation problem.

b. Grades 1 through 8 and kindergarten classes were conducted in the Beach School, near Areas 1 and 2. The efficient operating capacity of this school was 525 students.

c. A 500 pupil school was being constructed at Area X and would be ready for operation in September. The pupil capacity of all Yokohama

Schools was as follows:

Bluff School 225

Beach School 525

Area X School 500

1250

d. It was believed that the 1948-’49 school enrollment would not exceed 1200 students.

e. Transportation.

The procurement demand with the Eastern Motors Company of Tokyo had been renewed and ten additional buses made available for transporting students.

f. Texts and Supplies.

The Yokohama Post Exchange handled a complete line of school supplies and texts.

g. Curriculum.

The high school would again follow the plan of the North Central Association of Secondary Schools and Colleges and the Calvert program would be continued in the elementary grades.

h. Equipment

Equipment and furniture for the Area X school was being supplied on procurement demand Replacements for furniture and fixtures would be procured from local sources either by requisition or purchase.

i. Personnel.

Qualified dependents would be employed as teachers and foreign nationals and Japanese nationals would be used in administrative positions where it has possible to do so.

j. Medical Program.

It was planned to employ an additional school nurse and continue the current health program.

k. Sports.

The high school would again sponsor the type athletic program common to the senior high schools in the United States. The grammar schools would have supervised play periods and organized teams in the Upper grades.

l. School Finance.

It was expected that appropriated funds would be available for payment of teachers, however it was planned to continue tuition charges in kindergarten.

m. The Thrift Shop would continue to operate and admission would be charged for high school athletic contests. Expenditures from non-appropriated funds for all-purpose from September 1947 through June 1948 were as follows:

Salaries and Supplies $ 14,420.98

Athletic Equipment (Approx) $ 2,000.98

FOR THE SCHOOL SUPERINTENDENT:

LOREN McCARTNEY Captain, QMC Principal

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